Hair coloring is a fashion statement and frequently used by both genders. In recent years, many studies on hair dye alleged it to cause cancer of bladder and increase the chances of other types of cancer too. Here we will discuss the origin and composition of hair dyes and risks associated with its regular use.
Application of Hair Color
Men and women of all ages use hair coloring for different purposes such as:
- Enhance attractiveness
- To alter the appearance
- Maintain hair in good condition
- Optimize hair appearance
- Repair hair damage
- Cover gray hair
Classification of hair dyes
Hair dyes are classified on the basis of their origin (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24656996) and the various dyes are:
• Natural hair dyes –
These dyes are extracted from the plant like henna, chamomile and cinchona. They can change color without damaging the structure of hair, nourishes it and condition it but it lasts for few weeks only.
• Mineral or metallic hair dyes –
These dyes contains silver nitrate and lead salts. They can change your hair color by lightening or darkening it. They are incompatible with hydrogen peroxide and potentially toxic in nature. They can last for weeks and months.
• Synthetic hair dyes –
These dyes are of different types on the basis of wash fastness and degree of permanence. These are:
a) Temporary hair dye –
This dye sticks to the surface of cuticle and lasts for few days.
b) Semi permanent hair dye –
This dye achieves shallow penetration of the cortex and thus persists for weeks.
c) Permanent hair dyes –
This dye deeply penetrates the cortex and thus doesn’t wash out.
d) Bleaches –
This chemical strip off the natural hair color and makes your hair white or yellowish and thus used as color lightening or removing agent.
Potential harmful chemicals found in hair dye
• PPD (Para-phenylenediamine) –
PPD and its derivatives o-nitro-p-phenylenediamine and para-toluenediamine are highly sensitizing compounds. The derivatives are more harmful because they form complexes with specific amino acids by binding to them and cause sensitization. These compounds cause allergic reactions such as burning and headache. These are also considered as a potential carcinogen.
• Lead acetate –
it is considered as a carcinogen and banned by European countries. Studies have found a direct connection between lead level and polyneuropathy. It was found that a short term exposure to lead after misusing a hair dye elevated the lead blood level three times more than the normal (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24872215).
• Persulfate salts (ammonium Persulfate or potassium Persulfate) –
these salts can cause immediate reactions such as rhinitis, asthma, contact urticaria, and even anaphylaxis.
• Coal tar –
this compound is commonly found in hair colors and cause allergic reactions.
• DMDM hydantoin –
it can cause immune related problems.
• Ammonia –
it is found to be toxic and corrosive. It may cause respiratory problems.
• Resorcinol –
it is an irritant and a potential carcinogen.
Common side effects of hair coloring
Studies have proved that those who are susceptible to lung inflammation have more chances to develop asthmatic problem by using commercial hair dye. Hair dyes contain Persulfate which can cause persistent cough, wheezing, throat discomfort, lung inflammation and in some case it can cause full blown asthma attack. Ammonia is also found to have asthma causing property which can aggravate pre-existing breathing problems if high concentration is used in hair dye.
This is a cancer of lymph tissue which occurs in spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow and affects the immune system. According to national cancer institute, commercial dye contributes to 30 percent of the Non – Hodgkin’s Lymphoma cases. A compound 4 – ABP which is a hair coloring byproduct and commonly found in blonde, red and black color has found to have carcinogen effects. This is present in the dye but may not be listed on the list of ingredients.
Studies have demonstrated that women working at salon for minimum 5 years or more have higher incidence rate of breast cancer. Resorcinol which is an endocrine disrupting chemical increases the risk of breast cancer by interfering in the normal hormonal balance. PPD is also found to cause breast cancer.
This is the cancer of bone marrow and it is shown by the research studies that regular use of hair dye can increase the risk of this condition in Caucasian males.
This is a common problem caused by the hair coloring as many people are sensitive to the compounds found in hair dye such as PPD, ammonia etc. it can cause blistering, burning, rash, eczema and other skin related problems. Some components can cause respiratory problems like lung inflammation, coughing, wheezing etc.
How to avoid health risks of hair dye
You can go for natural alternatives of hair dye like henna, chamomile tea, Indian gooseberry, cinchona etc. which are easy to use and readily available in your nearest grocery store. You can achieve different shades like blonde, brown, red and black with these ingredients without any health risks.